RESPONSE OF PEANUT CULTIVARS TO FERTILIZATION AND SOWING DATE IN NEW RECLAIMED LAND.

 

 

 

A thesis

 

Presented to the Graduate School

Faculty of Agriculture, Damanhour Branch

AlexandriaUniversity

In partial fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Degree

 

 

 

Of

 

Master of Science

 

 

In

 

 

Crop Science

 

 

By

 

 

YOSSRY EL-SAYED SALAMA

 

 

2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Advisor's committee:

Prof. Dr. Mohsen Adam Omar. 

Emeritus. Professor of Crop Science,

Faculty of Agriculture, (El-Shatby).

AlexandriaUniversity.

 

 

Prof. Dr. Mohamed Mohamed Saadalla

Professor and Head of Crop Science Department,

Faculty of Agriculture, (Damanhour Branch),

AlexandriaUniversity.

 

 

 

Prof. Dr. Mohamed Abd El-Sattar Ahmed

Professor of Crop Science,

Faculty of Agriculture, (El-Shatby).

AlexandriaUniversity.

 

 

SUMMARY AND CONCULUSION

 

 

The present study was carried out in 2006 and 2007 at the Agriculture Experimental Farm of Alexandria University in Bostan area (nearly 100 km east to Alexandria city, latitude 30.2 N, longitude 30.5 N and altitude 7.4m). The main objectives of the recent study were;

1. Studying the response of peanuts local variety "Giza 5" to nitrogen and                                                                                                                      micro-elements fertilization.

2. Studying the response of peanuts local variety "Giza 6" to sowing dates and biofertilization.

2. Studying the response of peanuts local variety "Giza 5" to sowing dates and biofertilization.

The main results of the study will be summarized for each experiment as follows;

 

I: First experiment: Effect of nitrogen rate, methods of application and micro-elements on productivity and quality of "Giza-5" local peanuts variety.

 

The studied treatments included; a) three levels of deep nitrogen fertilization (zero, 30 and 60 kg/faddan) and two doses of micro-elements foliar application i.e. Fe, Zn and Mn (once after 60 days from sowing or twice after 60 and 90 days from sowing). b) The combinations of three rates of foliar nitrogen fertilization (1, 2 and 3%urea) and two doses of micro-elements foliar application (once after 60 days from sowing or twice after 60 and 90 days from sowing).

 

The experimental lay out was randomized complete block design with four replicates.

 

II.The second experiment: Response of peanuts local variety "Giza 6" to sowing dates and biofertilization.

 

Three sowing dates were used. These were mid-April, mid-May and mid June. Biofertilization was represented by the addition of Halex to seeds prior to sowing. The bacterial strains included in "Halex" were a free N-fixers namely; azotobacter, azosprillium and kleibsella, A split-plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design was used. The main plots were assigned to planting dates, whereas, the sub-plots received two levels of biofetilizer, i.e.; with biofetilizer and without biofertilizer.

 

III: The third experiment: Response of peanuts local variety "Giza 5" to sowing dates and biofertilization.

 

Material and methods for this experiment was completely similar to those of the second experiment except for the peanuts variety. "Early-punch" an imported early maturing variety adopted under Egyptian condition few years and named Giza-5 was used in this present experiment.

 

Additionally, the following agronomic and yield components and quality traits were evaluated in this study:

I.a: Agronomic traits:

 

1.      plant height (cm):

2. days to flowering:

3. Green weight and Dry weight per plant (gm)

4. days to physiological maturity:

5. Pod yield (kg/faddan):

6. Straw yield (kg/faddan):

7. Number of pods/ plant

8. Weight of pods /plant.

9. Number of seeds /pods:

10. seeds weight /pod:

11 100 seeds weight

12. Oil percentage.

13. Protein percentage.

The following results were obtained:

 

I.a.1: Plant height.

 

-60 kg nitrogen as a deep application with once or twice micro-elements spraying would result in the tallest peanuts plants.

 

I.a.2. Days to flowering:

 

-In 2006 and 2007 seasons, deep fertilization significantly delayed DF relative to foliar application (43.94 vs. 43.78 days) and (44.13 vs. 37.63 days) in the first and second seasons respectively.

 

-Significant delayed in DF was reached by 0 kg nitrogen plus spraying twice micro-elements in comparison 0 kg nitrogen plus spraying once micro-elements (38.25 vs. 35 days).

 

-DF delayed with 30 or 60 kg nitrogen as a deep application plus spraying once or twice micro-elements in comparison to 0 kg nitrogen plus spraying once or twice micro-elements (43.94 vs. 37.75 day) and (44.13 vs. 36.63 day) in the first and second season respectively.

 

-Significant delayed in DF was reached by 60kg nitrogen / faddan as deep fertilization versus 30kg nitrogen (46.3 vs. 42.0 days) in 2007 season.

 

I.a.3. Green weight:

 

-In 2007 season, deep nitrogen application significantly increased Gwt relative to foliar application; (386.08 vs. 262.25 gm) respectively.

 

-Deep application of 30 or 60 kg nitrogen / faddan gave high Gwt in comparison to 0 kg nitrogen / faddan; ( 386.08 vs. 247.22 gm). Deep fertilization by 60 kg nitrogen significantly increased Gwt in comparison to deep fertilization of 30 kg nitrogen (437.37 vs. 335.09 gm).

 

-Deep application 30 kg nitrogen plus micro-elements spraying once or twice and 60 kg nitrogen plus micro-elements spraying once or twice gave the highest Gwt (unsignificantly a varied from 446.56 to307.89 gm).

 

I.a.4. Dry weight/plant:

 

- Deep application of 60 kg nitrogen plus spraying micro-elements twice was superior to 60 kg nitrogen plus spraying micro-elements once in Dwt by about 17 % (98.9 vs. 96.1 gm).

 

-Deep application of 60 and 30 kg nitrogen / faddan significantly increased Dwt / plant relative to foliar application (91.57 vs. 60.96 gm) in 2006 season.

 

- Deep application of 60 kg nitrogen / faddan significant increased Dwt in comparison to 30 kg nitrogen / faddan by about 35% (115.4 vs.85.4 gm) respectively.

 

- Deep application of 30 or 60 kg nitrogen surpassed 0 kg nitrogen in Dwt / plant by about 55% (100.4 vs.64.74gm) for 30 or 60 kg nitrogen and 0 kg nitrogen, respectively.

 

I.a.5. Days to physiological maturity:

 

-Deep fertilization significantly increased days to maturity relative to foliar application by about 1% (98.13vs.98 days) in2006 season.

 

-In 2006 season, 0 kg nitrogen  plus spraying twice micro-elements  delayed days to physiological maturity in comparisons to 0 kg nitrogen plus spraying micro-elements once    (  98 vs,91.25 days ).

 

-1% urea plus spraying two spraying of micro-elements delayed DM in comparisons 1% urea plus one spraying ( 101vs.97.5) and (101.25vs. 96 days) the first and second season respectively,

 

-2% urea plus spraying two spraying of micro-elements delayed days to physiological maturity in comparisons 2% urea plus one spraying by about (101.75 vs.93.75).

 

-In 2006 season, 30 or 60 kg nitrogen delayed DPM in comparison 0 kg nitrogen (98.13 vs. 94.36days) and (104.36vs.94.75). Also, 60 kg nitrogen increased DM in comparisons 30 kg nitrogen / faddan (101.5 vs. 95 days)

 

I.b.Yield and yield component

I.b.1 Pods yield:

 

-In 2007 season, deep fertilization was superior to foliar application by about 66% (1359.78 vs. 814.68 kg /faddan), respectively.

 

-Deep fertilization 30 or 60 kg nitrogen / faddan surpassed in pods yield by about 125 % (1359.78 vs. 603.28 kg/faddan) in comparisons 0kg nitrogen.

 

-Deep fertilization of 60 kilogram nitrogen plus spraying micro-elements twice application gave the highest pods yield in both seasons (1462.65 and 1451.3 kg / faddan) in 2006 and 2007 respectively.

 

I.b.2. Straw yield:

 

-Deep application of nitrogen increased SY relative to foliar application by about 13 % (2536.65 vs. 2250.24 kg /faddan).

 

-Also, 30 kg nitrogen plus one sprays of micro-elements was superior to 30 kg nitrogen plus two sprays of micro-elements  in SY by about 9 % (2818.7 vs. 2574.3 kg/ faddan), respectively.

 

-3% urea plus one spray of micro-elements increased SY in relative 3% urea plus one sprays micro-elements (1964.2 vs. 1942.2 kg/ faddan).

 

-deep application of 60 kg nitrogen significant increased SY in comparison 30 kg nitrogen (2993 vs. 2696.5kg/ faddan).

 

I.b.3.Yield component:

I.b.3.1. Number of pods /plant:

 

-Deep fertilization of 30 or 60 kg nitrogen significant increased NP/P in comparison to 0 kg nitrogen by about 60% (30.4 vs. 19) in 2007 season,

 

-The lowest NP/P had recorded from zero nitrogen plus spraying micro-elements once or twice about (19.0 pod).

 

I.b.3.4. Seeds weight / pod:

 

-Deep fertilization increased significantly (p≥0.01) seed weight/pod by about 10% (1.74 vs. 1.62gm) in comparison foliar method for the second season.

 

I.b.3.5.100-seeds weight:

 

-Deep application of 30 and 60 kg nitrogen with spraying micro elements twice would result the heaviest 100-seed weight. While, In 2007 season the heaviest 100-seed weight resulted from 60 kg nitrogen plus micro-element spraying twice 103.2 gm and 30 kg nitrogen plus micro-elements spraying twice 100.3 gm.

 

I.c. Quality characters:

I.c. Oil Percentage (OP):

 

-Deep application was superior to the foliar application in OP by about 4 % (48.67 vs. 46.83 %) in the first season.

 

-Deep application of 60 kg nitrogen plus two sprays of micro-element gave high OP 50.97 % in comparison to 60 kg nitrogen plus one sprays of micro-elements 45.98 %, in 2007.

 

-Foliar application of 2% urea increased OP 45.96 % in comparison 3% urea 44.48% in 2006 season and 30 or 60 kg nitrogen superior to 0 kg nitrogen in OP (48.21 vs. 42.95 %) in 2007 season.

 

I.c.2. Protein Percentage (PP):

 

-Deep application superior to foliar application on PP by about 13 %( 22.74 vs. 20.13%) and 11% (21.34 vs. 19.31) in the first and second seasons, respectively.

 

-Deep application of 60 kg nitrogen significant increased PP relative to 30 kg nitrogen by about 14 % (24.27 vs. 21.22 %) and 16% (22.89 vs. 119.79 %) for the first and second season, respectively.

 

-Deep application of 30 or 60 kg nitrogen increased PP by about 23% (22.74 vs. 18.42) and 11% (21.34 vs. 19.23) in comparison 0 kg nitrogen in the first and second seasons respectively.

 

-Deep application of 60 kg nitrogen plus spraying micro-elements twice surpassed in PP by about 1.5 % (22.62 vs. 22.28% ) and 4% (20.9 vs. 20.09%) in comparison 60 kg nitrogen plus spraying micro-elements once in 2006 and 2007 respectively.

 

II. Experiment II: response of peanuts local variety "Giza 6" to sowing dates and biofertilization.

II.a.Agronomic characters:

II.a.1 Effect of sowing date:

 

Early sowing date showed superiority in days to flowering, dry weight per plant, number of nodules, and days to physiological maturity in both seasons and plant height in 2007 season.

 

II.a.2 Effect of biofertilization:

 

Inoculation with "Halex" was superior to non-inoculation by about 35% and 54% in green weight at the first and second season, respectively. Meantime, in 2007, inoculation with "Halex" gave the highest significant dry weight of 43.9 gm. While non-inoculation gave the lowest value of dry weight of 37.3 gm.

 

II.a.3 Effect of the interaction between sowing dates X biofertilization:

The highest values for days to flowering was resulted from April 15th date with inoculation with "Halex" (52.1 and 47.5 gm) for the successive seasons, respectively. While, June 15th X non-inoculation gave the lowest number of days to flowering (39.7 and 37.25) for first and second season, respectively. Also, the highest dry weight was recorded with April 15th at inoculation with "Halex" (51.08gm). Meantime, June 15th date with inoculation gave the lowest dry weight (31.29 gm).from table 23 in 2007; May 15th X inoculation with "halex" gave the heaviest green weight per plant of (331.35 gm). While, May 15th X non-inoculation produced lowest values of green weight (150.03gm).

 

 

II.b.yield and component:

II.b.1.Pods and straw yield:

II.b.1.1 Effect of sowing date:

 

-Pod yield was descending from April 15th (1192.1 kg/faddan) to May 15th (936.65 kg/faddan) to June 15th (673kg/faddan) in 2006 season

 

II.b.1.2 Effect of biofertilization:

 

-Inoculation with Halex " surpassed non-inoculation in straw yield by about 5 %( 5115.57 vs4859.83 for inoculated and non-inoculated, respectively.

 

 

II.b.2. Yield component:

II.b.2.1 Effect of sowing date:

 

-Number of pods in both years was significantly decreasing from April 15th (32.75 and 39.63).

 

- Significant weight of pods per plant was resulted from May 15th sowing date (36.22gm) followed by April 15th (33.76gm), then June 15th (24.49gm).

 

- April 15th had the highest number of seeds/pod (1.73). While, the second rank was represented by May 15th (1.44). On the other hand, the lowest number of seeds per pod resulted from late sowing (June 15th) (1.33), in2007 season

 

II.b.2.2 Effect of biofertilization:

 

-Inoculation plus Halex significantly increased the number of pos per plant by about 20 %( from 44.29 to 37.06), relative to the non-inoculated treatment. In 2007 season.

-Inoculation surpassed non-inoculation in 100-seeds weight by about 8% 94.14 and 87.25) for inoculation and non-inoculation, respectively.

 

II.c Quality characters:

II.c.1 Effect of sowing date:

 

-April 15th recorded the highest oil percentage of 43.26 % and 39.97 %, followed by May 15th 41.87 5 and 38.89 % then, June 15th 41.12% and 37.61 % for the first and second seasons, respectively.

 

-The highest protein percentage was noticed from April 15th (21.3 %), followed by May 15th (19.25%) then, June15th (18.58%) in 2007 season.

 

II.c.2 Effect of biofertilization:

 

-April 15th X inoculation, recorded the highest significant oil and protein percentage.

 

 

III. Experiment III: Response of peanuts local variety "Giza 5" to sowing dates and biofertilization.

III.a.Agronomic characters:

III.a.1 Effect of sowing date:

 

-Early sowing showed significantly increasing of values in each of plant height, days to flowering, green weight, dry weight in the first year and days to physiological maturity in both seasons and combined over years.

 

III.a.2 Effect of biofertilization:

 

-Inoculation with Halex recorded the maximum value of plant height in 2007 year. Days to physiological maturity in 2006 and days to flowering in both seasons.

 

-Inoculation with Halex gave the maximum value for other agronomic characters but the differences did not reach the level of significance.

 

III.a.3 Effect of the interaction between sowing dates X biofertilization:

 

-April 15th plus inoculation with Halex delayed flowering dates by about 10.25 days in comparison to the middle sowing date (May 15th )  and late sowing date (June 15th)  with inoculated by biofertilizer in 2006.

 

-May 15th X inoculation recorded the highest number of nodules 88.74. While, June 15th gave the minimum number of nodules 76.44.

 

III.b.Yield and yield component:

III.b.1.Pods and straw yield:

III.b.1.1 Effect of sowing date:

 

-1st sowing date (April 15th) appeared to be surpassed 2nd sowing ( May 15th ) and 3rd (June 15th ) in pos and straw yield

 

III.b.1.2 Effect of biofertilization:

 

-Inoculation with halex increased significantly pods yield by about 45% (1213.29 vs. 839.52kg) for inoculated and non-inoculated respectively.

 

-Inoculation was surpassed to straw yield non-inoculation by about 12 % (2288.16 % vs. 2567.57kg) for the former and latter, respectively

III.b.1.3 Effect of the interaction between sowing dates X biofertilization:

-April 15th plus inoculation with Halex had the highest pods yield per faddan (1116.49gk). While, June 15th X non-inoculation had the lowest pods yield per faddan (620.95 kg)

 

III.b.2. Yield component:

III.b.2.1 Effect of biofertilization:

 

-Number of pods per plant was significant descending from April 15th 28.02 and 33.39 to May15th 25.88 and 303.39 to June 15th 22.98 and 24.05 pod, for the first and second season, respectively.

- April 15th gave the heaviest pods per plant (45.41 gm and 556.46 gm), followed by May 15th (36.73 and 51.29 gm) then, June 15th (36.12 and 42.71gm) for the first and second seasons, respectively.

 

-Highest 100-seed weight resulted from April 15th 84.26 gm, followed by May 15th 75.68 gm then, June 15th 74.85 gm that was noticed as combined over year.

 

III.b.2.2 Effect of biofertilization:

 

-Inoculation with Halex gave the heaviest pods per plant (43.1 gm and 52.52 gm) for the first and second season, respectively. While, non-inoculation with Halex had the lowest values weight pods per plant (35.73 and 47.78 gm) in the first and second season, respectively.

 

-100-weight seeds descending from inoculation with Halex (82.71 to 72.63 gm) for non-inoculation in 2007 year.

 

III.c Quality characters:

III.c.1 Effect of sowing date:

 

- Oil % decreased from April 15th (40.77 % and 44.99%) to May 15th (39.29 % and 43.19 %) to June 15th 37.95 % and 40.13 % for the first and second seasons, respectively.

 

-Protein percentage decreased from April 15th (20.59 %) to May 15th (18.49%) to June 15th (18.34 %) in 2006 season.

 

III.c.2 Effect of biofertilization:

 

-Inoculation with Halex superior to non-inoculation of oil percentage by about 10 5 (41.21 vs. 37.47 %) for inoculation and non-inoculation respectively

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