Effect of Antibiotic or Bee Pollen with or without Propolis on Productive, Reproductive, Immunological and Biochemical Traits of NZW Rabbit Does and Their Offspring

The present study was carried out at Faculty of Agriculture, El-Bostan farm, Damanhour University during 2009-2011. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of antibiotic (100 ppm), bee pollen and/or propolis (150 ppm of each) or (300 ppm of each) supplementations on productive, reproductive, immunological and biochemical traits of dams and offspring performance until weaning.

Sixty four nulliparous NZW female rabbits were randomly distributed among 8 groups, each group containing 8 animals housed individually in Italian metal cages. One was a control group and 7 groups were supplemented orally with either Zinc bacitracin (ZnB) antibiotic as a growth promoting substance at 100 ppm, or bee pollen and/or propolis at a dose of 150 and 300 ppm in a capsulated form three times a week continuously all over the experimental period. The experiment was run for 8 parties. There were 15 bucks that were used randomly for natural mating with females. The results could be summarized as follows:

  • Propolis at 300 ppm significantly decreased number of service per conception compared to bee pollen supplementation at the same dose.
  • Body weight of litter at birth was significantly greater with bee pollen or propolis supplementation at 300 ppm and either 150 or 300 ppm of bee pollen with propolis mixture compared to control group.
  • Number of litter born alive was significantly greater in groups supplemented with 300 ppm of bee pollen or propolis and either 150 or 300 ppm of bee pollen with propolis mixture than that of the control group.
  • Bee pollen and propolis at 150 or 300 ppm and bee pollen with propolis mixture at 300 ppm each resulted in significantly higher total solid of milk than the control group.
  • Number of service per conception and fertility were significantly better of 1st, 3rd, 5thand 8thparity than that of the other parities.
  • During day 1-21 of age, the 8thparity had significantly lower body weight gain of kits than that of most of the parities. The same parity had the lowest milk yield while the best milk conversion ratio was shown of the 5thparity although differences were not significant.
  •  Milk yield for the whole period was also significantly greater in groups supplemented with either 150 ppm of bee pollen or propolis than only with the ZnB and 300 ppm propolis supplemented-group.
  • Total solid of milk of bee pollen and propolis at either 150 or 300 ppm was significantly greater than that of the control group.
  •  Bee pollen supplementation at 150 ppm significantly increased plasma total protein; albumin than the control group. Bee pollen or propolis supplemented groups at 150 ppm exhibited significantly lower plasma T3 than most of the other supplementations except for bee pollen with propolis at 150 ppm of each. On the other hand, ZnB group had significantly greater T3/T4ratio compared to bee pollen, propolis and bee pollen with propolis at 150 ppm.
  • Bee pollen with propolis at 150 ppm resulted in significantly greater blood plasma urea than the other groups. On the other hand, propolis with or without bee pollen at 150 or 300 ppm resulted in significantly greater plasma creatinine than the control. 
  • Bee pollen with propolis at 150 ppm of each had significantly less ALT than the control group. On the other hand, bee pollen and propolis at 300 ppm resulted in significantly less AST than that of propolis supplemented- groups at 150 ppm with or without bee pollen and the control group.
  • Plasma alkaline phosphatase of bee pollen at either 150 or 300 ppm and bee pollen and propolis mixture at 150 ppm each was significantly greater than that of the 150 ppm propolis supplemented-group.
  •  Groups supplemented with 300 ppm of bee pollen and propolis mixture had significantly higher WBC's than the other the groups. In contrast lymphocytes were significantly greater of propolis with or without bee pollen at 300 ppm than that of bee pollen, propolis and mixture of bee pollen and propolis at 150 ppm each.
  • Bee pollen with propolis at 300 ppm had significantly greater phagocytic activity than the other groups.
  • Total antioxidant capacity was significantly greater due to bee pollen with propolis mixture supplementation at 150 ppm each than that of the other groups.
  • Propolis at 300 ppm resulted in significantly less malondialdehyde than the other groups.
  •  Groups supplemented with bee pollen at 150 and 300 ppm and mixture of bee pollen with propolis at 150 and 300 ppm each had significantly greater SRBC's of doe rabbits and their offspring at 90 days of age compared to the control and the ZnB group, respectively.
  •  Bee pollen supplementation at 300 ppm induced a significant increase in serum albumin and serum α1- globulin than that of the control group.
  • Propolis supplementation at 300 ppm had significantly greater serum α2- globulin and β- globulin than that of the control group.
  • Total globulin was significantly greater of 300 ppm propolis supplemented-groups than that of the control.
  • Supplementing bee pollen with propolis induced activation of lymphobiosis featuring hyperplasia of splenic white pulp compared to bee pollen and propolis which showed moderate and mild degrees of lymphobiosis activation hyperplasia, respectively. However, lymphoid depletion was observed in ZnB group featuring necrosis of lymphoid cells in the white pulps.
  •  Supplementing mixture of bee pollen and propolis showed normal hepatic histology without hydropic degeneration that reflects the enhancing effect of this supplementation. Propolis and bee pollen groups showed the same picture as the control group exhibiting hydropic degeneration of most hepatic cells. While ZnB group induced an adverse effect on the bile ducts featuring portal periductul inflammatory cells infiltration with epithelial hyperplasia reflecting chronic cholangitis.
  • Weaning age at either 24 or 30 day of age did not significantly affect growth, feed intake and FCR of rabbits up to 90 days of age. Similar results were shown in the carcass criteria and inner body organ.

In conclusion, bee pollen and propolis may be used as an alternative growth promoter to ZnB in doe rabbits resulting in improved productive and immunological status and economical efficiency of rabbits, however, the recommended dose of bee pollen and/or propolis depends on the desirable trait.

 

أخر تحديث للصفحة : 5/30/2017 3:56:27 PM
عدد القراءات : 2155

جميع الحقوق محفوظة لجامعة دمنهور © 2016
تصميم وتنفيذ مشروع البوابة الإلكترونية